Chakkarai - Jaggery - Gur

Names of jaggery
Gur in Bengali, Bella in Kannada, Bellam in Telugu, Vellam in Tamil, Sharkara in Malayalam, Gaur in Gujarati, Gul in Marathi, Hakuru in Sinhalese, Gud in Hindi, Panocha or Panutsa in the Philippines, Panela and piloncillo in Latin America, Rapadou in Haiti, Rapadura in south america, Htanyet in Burmese.

Jaggery, the food of the Gods, is a traditional unrefined sugar used in India, the home of Sugar, the word derived from Sakkarai in Tamil and Malayalam. 

Jaggery promotes Fertility

Jaggery is given with black sesame seeds to girls in the traditional puberty ritual after the first menstruation. Girls who followed this tradition will have low probability of getting infertility issues or gynecological problems in their later life.

This effect of jiggery is seen in many research studies. Example jiggery increased flies growth So good for reproduction 

Semolina- jaggery diet improved fly output at F2 and F3 generation

Cytoprotective and antioxidant activity studies of jaggery sugar 

Br J Nutr. 1985 Nov;54(3):593-603.
Some nutritional properties of unrefined sugar and its promotion of the survival of new-born rats.
Eisa OA1, Yudkin J.
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1. The claims that rats fed on diets with 'brown sugar' (unrefined muscovado) perform better in a number of ways than do rats fed on refined white sugar (sucrose) have been examined. 2. Male Wistar rats were fed on purified diets from weaning, in which the carbohydrate component was either maize starch or unrefined sugar or sucrose. The sugars produced no differences in growth rate, body composition, or the weights of liver or kidneys. Compared with sucrose, unrefined sugar produced an increase in blood cholesterol and in the activity of hepatic fatty acid synthetase, and a greater increase in blood triglyceride. In confirmation of earlier results, rats fed on either sugar had heavier livers and kidneys, increased activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC and a higher concentration of plasma triglyceride compared with rats fed on maize starch. 3. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on the same three diets as the male rats, and mated when they weighed about 200 g. No difference was seen in their ability to mate, the progress of pregnancies, or the sizes of the litters. Does fed on unrefined sugar produced litters of higher viability than did does fed on starch or sucrose. Survival was between 85 and 100% with unrefined sugar and between 30 and 75% with starch or sucrose. 4. Unrefined muscovado sugar has thus been shown to contain a factor required by female rats for the proper viability of their pups. This may be the same 'Reproductive Factor R' as that described by Wiesner & Yudkin (1951). In certain circumstances, unrefined muscovado sugar might therefore contribute to the nutritional value of a human diet, although in what circumstances, in what respect and to what extent it might do so, is by no means clear.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1989;59(1):77-9.
Mineral elements in unrefined sugar, and rat reproduction.
Eisa O1, Yudkin J.
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Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed purified diets in which the carbohydrate component was either starch or refined sugar (sucrose). The addition to these diets of the ash prepared by the incineration of unrefined muscovado sugar prevented the deficiencies of Factor R seen in the offspring when the diets were not supplemented with ash. Analysis by neutron activation showed that the ash from the unrefined sugar significantly increased the proportion of iron, cobalt, manganese, caesium and rubidium in the diets. The addition of chlorides of all five mineral elements to the diet containing refined sugar also prevented the development of signs of deficiency of Factor R in the pups. However the addition of cobalt chloride alone, or of cobalt and manganese chlorides, did not prevent the deficiency. It is likely that what we have called reproductive Factor R is iron, caesium or rubidium.

These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic.

The outcome of study showed that Jaggery the natural functional food has the efficiency to encounter the genotoxic effects induced by arsenic.

Jaggery prevent dental caries

Experiments with hamsters showed that there are caries-inhibitory substances in brown sugar, in the solid crystallized form as well as in treacle. The cariostatic effect was also apparent when the brown sugar was baked into bread

Caries and periodontal disease in hamsters fed cereal foods varying in sugar content and hardness

Seventeen compounds were investigated with regard to their effect on hamster caries. The dose was 0.2 per cent of the total solid diet. Three substances inhibited caries without decrease in weight gain: quercetin, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid. A reduction of caries also was effected by the addition of coumarin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, which, however, significantly impaired the animal growth.

In a recent paper of the author (Strålfors, 1967) the view was put forward that reduced weight gain is associated with increased caries. The results of this paper strengthen this hypothesis. For future investigations it would be of value to test substances at several concentration levels in order to get a dose-response curve.  

Inhibition of hamster caries by phenolic compounds

Inhibition of hamster caries by substances in brown sugar

Enamel protecting factors in Food


 Turner and Vickery3 reported an attempt to study the effects of white and whole meal flour on caries. The DMF scores among a group of 94 British children between 1 and 18 years old who had always eaten whole meal bread were compared with those from several typical British groups (eg, the controls in the fluoridation studies). The results did show considerably less caries in the whole meal group: DMF scores for the 5-, 6-, and 7-year-old children were below three


Jaggery for lung health

Enhanced translocation of particles from lungs by jaggery.

A P Sahu and A K Saxena

Moreover, total protection of occupationally-exposed workers from inhalation of particles is not yet possible and continued attempts must be made to find effective methods of prevention and possible treatment. It has been observed that Indian industrial workers who consumed jaggery while working in dusty or smoky environment suffered no discomfort. In the ancient Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine, jaggery was considered to have beneficial effects in certain lung diseases. In the present studies, treatment with jaggery activated both defense mechanisms of the lungs.  Enhanced translocation of dust particles from lungs and peritoneal cavity to tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TLN) was observed. However, the TLN are the site of immune-cell proliferation, and the enhanced translocation of particles following jaggery treatment may be due to the induction of some immune response. A

The enhanced translocation of coal particles from lungs to tracheobronchial lymph nodes was observed in jaggery-treated rats. Moreover, the jaggery reduced the coal-induced histological lesions and hydroxyproline contents of lungs. The lesions induced in omental tissue and regional lymph nodes by a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg each of coal and silica dust were modified by jaggery (0.5 g/rat, 5 days/week for 30 days). These findings along with the preventive action of jaggery on smoke-induced lung lesions suggest the potential of jaggery as protective agent for workers in dusty and smoky environments. - Environ Health Perspect 102(Suppl 5):21 1-214 (1994)

Jaggery for kidney, liver and whole body health

Thus, it may be concluded that jaggery can be used to reduce hepatic and renal damage and may serve as an alternative medicine in hepatic and renal etiology.

Bad Effects of white sugar poison

Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions

The per capita refined sucrose consumption in England steadily rose from 6.8 kg in 1815 to 54.5 kg in 1970 (38),

White sugar and kidney damage reported in 1980

The first evidence of crystalline sucrose production appears about 500 BC in northern India (37).Galloway JH. 2000. Sugar. In: Kiple KF, Ornelas KC, eds. The Cambridge world history of food. Vol 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000:437– 49

Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications

Jaggery as antibiotic-preservative

Greatness of Jaggery proved again -Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Jan-Jun;9(1):14-21. doi: 10.4103/njms.NJMS_57_17.

Probing natural substitute for formalin: Comparing honey, sugar, and jaggery syrup as fixatives.

Bhattacharyya A1, Gupta B2, Singh A3, Sah K3, Gupta V4. The preservation of tissue by honey, sugar, and jaggery syrup was comparable to that of form

alin. Among the three natural fixatives, jaggery syrup excelled. Hence, it can be considered as an equally effective formalin substitute.Natural substitutes can be an advantage whenever the health hazards of formalin are to be considered. In our study, apart from formalin, the preservation of tissues by jaggery was much better as compared to honey and sugar. Large sample size can be used for the more reliability of the result. From this st

udy, we can conclude that the eco-friendly natural fixatives have all the novel traits to substitute formalin. Moreover, jaggery syrup as a replacement for formalin is a step forward in the field of tissue preservation. All the three natural substances: honey, sugar, and jaggery gave promising results. However, jaggery exceeded our expectations, even surpassing the proven honey..

 Jaggery good nutrition

J Med Food. 2008 Jun;11(2):337-48. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2007.689.

Antidiabetes and antihypertension potential of commonly consumed carbohydrate sweeteners using in vitro models.

Ranilla LG1Kwon YIGenovese MILajolo FMShetty K.

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Commonly consumed carbohydrate sweeteners derived from sugar cane, palm, and corn (syrups) were investigated to determine their potential to inhibit key enzymes relevant to Type 2 diabetes and hypertension based on the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity using in vitro models. Among sugar cane derivatives, brown sugars showed higher antidiabetes potential than white sugars; nevertheless, no angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition was detected in both sugar classes. Brown sugar from Peru and Mauritius (dark muscovado) had the highest total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, which correlated with a moderate inhibition of yeast alpha-glucosidase without showing a significant effect on porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase activity. In addition, chlorogenic acid quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography was detected in these sugars (128 +/- 6 and 144 +/- 2 microg/g of sample weight, respectively). Date sugar exhibited high alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and ACE inhibitory activities that correlated with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neither phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity was detected in corn syrups, indicating that nonphenolic factors may be involved in their significant ability to inhibit alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and ACE. This study provides a strong biochemical rationale for further in vivo studies and useful information to make better dietary sweetener choices for Type 2 diabetes and hypertension management.

Jaggery in sweets and other natural forms

Metagenomics analysis of Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India.

Jaggery from Palmyrah palm (Borassus flabellifer L.)-

Processing of Sugar on Farm

They can process one tonne of sugar daily from10 tonnes of sugar cane crushed. At Iskcon Farm, a very simple method of juicing the cane, and boiling up the juice turns the juice into jaggery.  

Jaggery is made from the whole sugar juice, nothing is removed and all the nutrients that would normally be extracted into molasses are retained, making it a very healthful product.

  • The juice runs from the crusher into 3in large 8 feet wok like iron pans,
  • The juice runs from one to the next, with a fire underneath. 1 ½ litres Okra (Ladys Finger) juice is added to first pan, to pull major residue out. And to every 7-½ kg sugar juice, 100g lime is added, which also helps clarify syrup. The top of the syrup is cleared off as it cooks. 100g lime is for one pan which will contain juice crushed from 700 kilo of cane.
  • Cook till 800C, to the softball stage. 100ml caster oil is added before scooping.  The hot syrup is then scooped into large wooden trays. There it is pushed and pulled with paddles until it cools and becomes a soft powder.  A bit like making fudge.
  • Jaggery sugar is then packed into 250 g bags and sold through the stores in the major cities in India.  This product is certified biodynamic and sold under a brand name.
  • If it needs storage on site, it is packed into 25kg bags and the walls of the warehouse are sprayed monthly with Neem, Turmeric powder and Pungam oil to stop insect infestation.

They have analysed the Jaggery, which they call the whole sugar, and found that it is rich in so many salts, minerals and vitamins which is not found in white sugar.  Research done in Europe and China and was found that if small children use whole sugar then they are less prone to dental decay and back bone problems.

By processing the sugar cane at the farm level we get all the bio mass back into our land, in the form of composting material.


Jai Chaitanya Dasa , Iskcon Farm, Bangalore, Karnataka RIRDC Sugar Growing final. Growing sugar Cane in India. 


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